IgG: Oligoclonal Banding in Serum and Cerebro-spinal Fluid (CSF)

The identification of IgG-specific oligoclonal banding

in serum and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF)

Agarose gel isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting is considered to be the “Gold Standard”1 method for the determination of intrathecal IgG synthesis in the clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

It offers advantages over other methods such as IgG quotient, blood-CSF barrier function, direct staining and in-gel fixation methods.

With the Helena Biosciences IgG Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) assay, CSF-derived protein molecules are separated within a liquid environment on the gel via a pH gradient which causes charged particles to move up to the point at which their net electrical charge is neutral — known as the proteins’ Isoelectric Point (pI).

Separation of proteins by Isoelectric focusing

In combination with our highly sensitive immunoblotting technique, the Helena Biosciences IgG method provides clear, precise oligoclonal band detection. Our simple, step-by-step procedure provides accurate and efficient diagnosis.

In order to extend the capability of the method, Helena Biosciences has developed a range of additional reagent kits for use with the standard gels.  These reagents allow the detection of other immunoglobulins that may be present in the CSF as well as IgG; in particular the use of anti-kappa and anti-lambda increases the scope for accurate analysis of more difficult samples such as those with a high polyclonal IgG background or those with a ‘singlet’ band present.


  1. Freedman et al. “Recommended Standard of Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.” Arch Neurol/Vol 62, June 2005. Andersson et al. “Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis: A Consensus Report.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1994; 57:897-902.

Contact me about this

Leave your details using this quick form and we will get in touch.


Home page

You are here:



Molecular Biology products